On this site you will find versions of some classics of early modern philosophy, and a few from the 19th century, prepared with a view to making them easier to read while leaving intact the main arguments, doctrines, and lines of thought. The site is now operated by the text-preparer Jonathan Bennett and his Canadian team. April - Thomas J. Feliciano — an American writer based in Istanbul - is digitizing our works into the e-book formats of.
EARLY MODERN PHILOSOPHY
Early Modern Texts
Gottfried Leibniz: Philosophy of Mind
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz , born June 21 [July 1, New Style], , Leipzig [Germany]—died November 14, , Hanover [Germany] , German philosopher, mathematician, and political adviser, important both as a metaphysician and as a logician and distinguished also for his independent invention of the differential and integral calculus. As a child, he was educated in the Nicolai School but was largely self-taught in the library of his father, who had died in Leibniz dreamed of reconciling—a verb that he did not hesitate to use time and again throughout his career—these modern thinkers with the Aristotle of the Scholastics. After completing his legal studies in , Leibniz applied for the degree of doctor of law.
He dismissed standard accounts of causality and argued that our conceptions of cause-effect relations are grounded in habits of thinking, rather than in the perception of causal forces in the external world itself. He defended the skeptical position that human reason is inherently contradictory, and it is only through naturally-instilled beliefs that we can navigate our way through common life. In the philosophy of religion , he argued that it is unreasonable to believe testimonies of alleged miraculous events, and he hints, accordingly, that we should reject religions that are founded on miracle testimonies. He also advanced theories on the origin of popular religious beliefs, grounding such notions in human psychology rather than in rational argument or divine revelation. The larger aim of his critique was to disentangle philosophy from religion and thus allow philosophy to pursue its own ends without rational over-extension or psychological corruption.