Transmission electron microscopy TEM is a form of microscopy which in which a beam of electrons transmits through an extremely thin specimen, and then interacts with the specimen when passing through it. TEMs provide images with significantly higher resolution than visible-light microscopes VLMs do because of the smaller de Broglie wavelength of electrons. These electrons allow for the examination of finer details, which are several thousand times higher than the highest resolution in a VLM. Nevertheless, the magnification provide in a TEM image is in contrast to the absorption of the electrons in the material, which is primarily due to the thickness or composition of the material. The regular arrangement of the diffraction spots, the so-called diffraction pattern DP , can be observed. While the transmitted and the diffracted beams interfere on the image plane, a magnified image electron microscope image appears.
Scanning transmission electron microscopy characterisation of carbide precipitates in steel
Transmission Electron Microscopy - Chemistry LibreTexts
The environmental scanning electron microscope ESEM is a scanning electron microscope SEM that allows for the option of collecting electron micrographs of specimens that are wet , uncoated , or both by allowing for a gaseous environment in the specimen chamber. Although there were earlier successes at viewing wet specimens in internal chambers in modified SEMs, the ESEM with its specialized electron detectors rather than the standard Everhart-Thornley detector and its differential pumping systems, to allow for the transfer of the electron beam from the high vacuum in the gun area to the high pressure attainable in its specimen chamber, make it a complete and unique instrument designed for the purpose of imaging specimens in their natural state. Starting with Manfred von Ardenne ,  early attempts were reported of the examination of specimens inside "environmental" cells with water or atmospheric gas, in conjunction with conventional and scanning transmission types of electron microscopes. Further, Shah and Beckett reported the use of differentially pumped cells or chambers to presumably maintain botanical specimens conductive in order to allow the use of the absorbed specimen current mode for signal detection in  and in
Sample Preparation for Transmission Electron Microscopy
PhD thesis, University of Leeds. Understanding and controlling the polymorphic form and microstructure of pharmaceutical and zeolitic materials is key to their ongoing application in the food, medical, and chemical industries. Bulk techniques traditionally used to characterise the properties of these materials are limited when it comes to the analysis of the fine atomic structure. In this work electron microscopy has been utilised for the characterisation of a model organic compound theophylline form II and a model zeolite Sn-beta , both of which are highly sensitive to damage when irradiated by a high-energy electron beam 80 — kV.
This thesis explores the use of new, advanced electron microscopy techniques to study dynamic processes occurring in nanomaterials. The focus of this research is on the use of in situ liquid phase transmission electron microscopy LP-TEM to study the behavior of heterogeneous catalysts and related nanomaterials in a liquid phase at the nanometer scale. It was clear that the main challenge for successfully studying these materials in LP-TEM is the effect of the electron beam interacting with the liquid and solid, causing degradation of several important oxides, such as SiO2, Al2O3 and MgO. Possible strategies to mitigate this were found and include the use of lower electron dose rates, the use of more stable oxides TiO2, ZrO2 and Nb2O5 in this work and in the case of SiO2, the use of radical scavengers to lower the concentration of reducing radicals the oxide is exposed to. Using such a strategy, gold nanoparticles anchored on a TiO2 support was used as a model catalyst.