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Contractarianism / Contractualism
David Gauthier - Wikipedia
Gauthier was born in Toronto in and educated at the University of Toronto B. He taught at the University of Toronto from until , when he joined the Department of Philosophy at the University of Pittsburgh , where he is now Distinguished Service Professor emeritus. In , he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada F. Gauthier is the author of numerous articles, some of the most important of which are collected in Moral Dealing , as well as several books including Practical Reasoning , The Logic of Leviathan , Morals by Agreement , and Rousseau: The Sentiment of Existence. In addition to systematic work in moral theory, Gauthier is also interested in the history of political philosophy , especially Hobbes and Rousseau. He has also done work on the theory of practical rationality , where he begins from an attempt to understand economic rationality, rather than from Kantian or Aristotelian antecedents.
Morality is central to all rational beings, whereby a moral action is one determined by reason, rather than our personal desires as suggested by Kant in contrast to Hume. Furthermore, Kant suggests that an action is moral only on account of its being reasoned, therefore the moral worth of an action is determined by its motives and not by its consequences. Exploring the works of Hume and Kant on morality and ethics, we will ask the question whether we should do what is morally right, even when you could profit by doing something wrong, and furthermore, we shall discuss morality as a type of game, yet something you cannot opt out of, as something Foot describes as 'inescapable'.
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