A simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system over time. Often, computers are used to execute the simulation. Simulation is used in many contexts, such as simulation of technology for performance tuning or optimizing, safety engineering , testing , training , education ,  and video games. Simulation is also used with scientific modelling of natural systems  or human systems to gain insight into their functioning,  as in economics. Simulation can be used to show the eventual real effects of alternative conditions and courses of action. Simulation is also used when the real system cannot be engaged, because it may not be accessible, or it may be dangerous or unacceptable to engage, or it is being designed but not yet built, or it may simply not exist.
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A neural network is a series of algorithms that endeavors to recognize underlying relationships in a set of data through a process that mimics the way the human brain operates. In this sense, neural networks refer to systems of neurons, either organic or artificial in nature. Neural networks can adapt to changing input; so the network generates the best possible result without needing to redesign the output criteria. The concept of neural networks, which has its roots in artificial intelligence , is swiftly gaining popularity in the development of trading systems. Neural networks, in the world of finance, assist in the development of such process as time-series forecasting, algorithmic trading , securities classification, credit risk modeling and constructing proprietary indicators and price derivatives. The network bears a strong resemblance to statistical methods such as curve fitting and regression analysis. A neural network contains layers of interconnected nodes.
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The National Bureau of Economic Research NBER is a private, non-profit, non-partisan research organization with an aim is to promote a greater understanding of how the economy works. It disseminates economic research among public policymakers, business professionals, and the academic community. Hundreds of the nation's leading scholars in economics and business are also NBER researchers who focus on four types of empirical research: developing new statistical measurements, estimating quantitative models of economic behavior, assessing the effects of public policies on the U. Twelve of the 31 American Nobel Prize winners in Economics have been researchers at the bureau.